My daughter and “I” or “me”?

It depends.

  • MY DAUGHTER AND I had a great time together.

A SUBJECT PRONOUN is the PERFORMER of the action in a sentence.

The OBJECT PRONOUN is the RECEIVER of the action in a sentence.

I” is a Subject Pronoun, and “ME” is an Object Pronoun. 

  • like chocolate.
  • The call is for me.


  • I called Steve.
  • I talked to Mary.
  • Steve called me.
  • Mary talked to me.
  • These shoes are too big for me.


We get confused when we use a PRONOUN IN A PAIR, which it’s called:


  • Sarah and I are friends.
  • The gift is from Sarah and me.

CLUE 1 after a preposition, use an object pronoun


  • The gift is from me.


  • Bob and I had lunch.
  • They promoted Bob and me.

NOTICE that it is possible that the object comes in the beginning of the sentence.

It is me who proofread the content before it was submitted.


  • It is you and me in this old photo.
  • I am me, and you are you.
  • That person over there is me in the photo.




DIVIDED USAGE Some forms have always existed in the language, but have been eradicated by eighteenth and nineteenth century British grammarians, often because they thought that English grammar should imitate Latin, which was considered a superior language. Examples:

  • John and me went to the cinema.
  • between you and I

People are now more tolerant of such forms, so they are becoming more common.

They are, however, restricted to a very informal style. They are not correct in formal speech or writing.

‘Home’, ‘at home’ and ‘from home’

A student said: “I’ve just arrived at home.”

Home or at home?

His sentence isn’t fine. It should be:


Home in this example is behaving like an adverb expressing direction. We do not need a preposition with home when it is used with any verb referring to direction:

  • I will ARRIVE / GO / COME / LEAVE home late this evening.

Note that most verbs expressing direction require the preposition to before the noun:

  • ran to the theatre so that I wouldn’t be late.
  • I’m going to walk to work from now on. It’s healthier.

Now, once you arrive home, then you are at home, and no more direction is suggested, so at is then the appropriate preposition to use with home:

  • Will you be at home tonight, or are you going out? ~ No, I’ll be at home.

However, even here, at is often omitted, especially in American English.

So AT HOME / FROM HOME / GO HOME / LEAVE HOME are common fixed expressions with prepositions where no article is required:

  • Working from home continues to be a popular choice among employees, even after the pandemic.

PRACTICE 1 – LISTENING: Listen to vocabulary related to working from home, from announcements to buying and setting up computers to work from home.

PRACTICE 2 – SPEAKING: answer the questions

  1. Three years later, what’s the future of remote work?
  2. What kind of work environment do you think employees expect in 2023?
  3. Do you think remote workers are more productive than the ones working in an office?

Studies show promising results for hybrid work, especially for those who enjoy face-to-face interactions and the excitement of office environments.

What’s the difference between near and close?

When you are talking about PHYSICAL DISTANCES, you can use either word:

  • The hospital is near.
  • The hospital is close.

Both these sentences are correct and mean the same thing, a SHORT DISTANCE.

NEAR and CLOSE have also this same meaning when referring to TIME:

  • Summer is near.
  • Summer is close.

When close has this meaning, it is pronounced /kləʊs/.

And notice that close is often followed by the preposition to:

  • The hospital is close to the park.
  • The hospital is near the park.

Be Careful! Don’t confuse the adjective close with the verb close /kləʊz/. If you close something, you move it so that it fills a hole or gap.

Close near

Now, when you are talking about something that deals with ABSTRACT IDEAS OR QUALITIES, like RELATIONSHIPS, you use CLOSE instead of near:

  • My friend and I live in different countries, but we are very close.

Here, I am saying that my friend and I are not in the same physical area, but we are emotionally connected. We are good friends.

However, if I say, “My neighbor and I live in the same apartment building, but we are not close,” I mean we occupy the same physical area, but we are not emotionally connected. My dog tried to bite his dog once, and he has never spoken to me again!

You can refer to someone you know well as a close friend.

  • Mike and I are very close friends.
  • His father was a close friend of my father.

You can refer to someone who is directly related to you as a `close relative.

  • She had no very close relatives.

You can also refer to someone as a `near relative, but this is less common. 

You can say:

  • They’re a close family.
  • My dad was closer to his brother than to his sister.

Close is also used in the following collocations:

  • close encounter
    The mountaineer Joe Simpson has had several close encounters with death.
  • close race
    After a close race, Obama won the election.
  • close finish
    It was a close finish – only a tenth of a second separated the two runners.

Near close

  • near miss
    The asteroid passed 27,700 km from the surface of Earth – a near miss.
  • in the near future
    The volcano could erupt in the near future, according to scientists.
  • in the near distance
    We could see someone in the near distance.

Near vs. Nearby

Near and nearby both mean close. They are just used differently in the sentence.

Here are some guidelines:

Use NEAR as a preposition that states the proximity of something to something else – where something or someone is in relation to another thing or person.

It is what a PREPOSITION does. A preposition is a word that shows the relation of one word in a sentence to another word.

  • There is a beach near my house.  (this means that there is a beach close to my house)
  • He worked in a restaurant near the station. Not: He worked in a restaurant nearby the station.

NEARBY can never be properly used as a preposition, although you may hear someone say it occasionally:

  • The book is nearby the table. (it is not considered correct)
  • The book is near the table. (near means close to the table)

Use NEARBY before a noun, as an ADJECTIVE, meaning ‘not far away’:

  • We can meet at a nearby beach.
  • Luckily, the nearby buildings weren’t damaged by the fire.

Or use NEARBY, meaning ‘not far away’, near whatever is being mentioned, as an ADVERB, to say that something is close wherever what or who is being mentioned is:

  • The beach is nearby.
  • Does Paul live nearby

Remember that an ADVERB is a word that tells us more about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It describes or modifies these words.

So, note that NEARBY can appear either before or after a noun that it describes, but NEAR can normally appear only before the noun, and even then, only when referring to time:

  • We slept at a nearby motel. (nearby + noun)
  • We slept at a motel nearby. (noun + nearby)
  • I hope to visit you in the near future. (near + noun, and near=close in time)

So, NEAR can mean close in time (=soon), as well as close in distance, but nearby cannot, as shown below:

  • Summer is near. [near=close in time]
  • May is nearby.  [nearby cannot mean close in time]

According to Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, near to is also possible with the same meaning as near, but it is less common.

  • There is a beach near (to) my house.
  • I came near (to) hitting him. (prep + verb + ing)

Which future? Will, going to or present progressive?

There are some differences between these three ways of talking about the future. The differences are not always important; often we can use two or three different forms to talk about the same thing.


Going to: we can see the future in the present; we see things coming or starting:

Look out! You’re going to break that glass! (I can see it now.)

Will: we think or believe things about the future:

Don’t give him a watch – he‘ll break it. (I think so, because I know him.)

Practice I: What’s the best form?

  1. Perhaps we are going to / will meet again one day.
  2. Look! Andy is going to / will fall off his bike!
  3. I think you are going to / will love Paris.
  4. Look at those clouds: it‘s going to / will rain.


Will: we are making decisions; spontaneous decisions made at the time of speaking:

‘We’ve got a letter from Jan.’ ‘Ok, I‘ll answer it.

Going to: decisions are already made; decision made before the time of speaking:

‘There are a lot of letters to answer.’ ‘I know. ‘I‘m going to do them all on Tuesday.’

Practice II: Which one: I’ll or I’m going to?

  1. I’ve decided (that) ……………… stop smoking.
  2. ‘I don’t want to cook tonight.’ ‘All right, then. ……..cook.’
  3. ‘I haven’t got any money.’ ‘No? OK. ………….. pay.’
  4. ‘Do you want to go out tonight?’ ‘No, ………….. study English.’
  5. ‘These pants are dirty.’ ‘Really? Oh, yes, they are. …………. wash them.’
  6. ‘Is Ann eating with us?’ ‘Wait a minute. ………….. ask her.’


Going to and the present progressive are often both possible when we talk about plans.

We use the present progressive mostly for fixed plans with a definite time and/or place:

I‘m going to see Ann sometime soon.

I‘m meeting Ann at the theater at 8 pm.

Sarah‘s starting university on September 17.

Practice III: In three of these sentences, the present progressive is possible. Which three?

  1. Jack is going to arrive at 4 pm.
  2. I’m going to learn French one of these days.
  3. I’m going to fly to Paris next year.
  4. Mom’s going to tell me about her problems.
  5. We’re all going to spend this month in Brazil.
  6. Are you going to answer all those emails?


PRACTICE I: 1. will; 2. is going to; 3. will; 4. is going to

PRACTICE II: 1. I’m going to; 2. I’ll; 3. I’ll; 4. I’m going to; 5. I’ll; 6. I’ll

PRACTICE III: 1. Jack is arriving at 4.00.; 3. I’m flying to Paris next year.; 5. We’re all spending this month in Brazil.

Here is a clear, simple, focused, and entertaining video that supports what we’ve learned.

Now practice will and going to a little more. In which sentences the present progressive is possible?

Lesson from The Good Grammar Book, Michael Swan and video transcript.